The term Elder was originally used to denote the older
men of a Jewish community which governed and made the major decisions. In
the New Testament, the term evolved into a description of a mature believer
charged with spiritual supervision and ministry within the church, detached
from the relationship with age. The terms elder, bishop and pastor are
generally used interchangeably in the New Testament, although "elder"
primarily refers to the person, while "bishop or pastor" deals with their
office. "Let the elders who rule well be counted worthy of double honor,
especially those who labor in the word and doctrine" (1 Tim. 5:17).
A bishop means "an overseer," originally the principal
officer or pastor of a local church, but later evolved into a position of
supervision over multiple churches. "This is a faithful saying: If a man
desires the position of a bishop, he desires a good work" (1 Tim. 3:1).
In today's society, a Pastor is generally a minister and spiritual overseer of a church congregation — the same as an elder or bishop. Pastor was probably not intended to be as much a title, as it was an adjective to describe what he does. A pastor literally means "shepherd," a metaphoric description of one who cares for and leads a flock of God's sheep. One of five office gifts described in Ephesians 4:11.